Monitoring Cattle Grazing Behavior and Intrusion Using Global Positioning System and Virtual Fencing Monitoring Cattle Grazing Behavior and Intrusion Using Global Positioning System and Virtual Fencing

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Bello Rotimi-Williams

Abstract

The inadaptability of the frightening devices to the behavioral-change exhibited by grazing animals has been a great challenge in developing animal detection and recognition system that can prevent animal intrusion to a prohibited area. Animal distribution is something that is challenging and that does not have an immediate answer to. In fact, literature shows that just in the last few years, more than 68 different strategies have been used trying to affect animal distribution. These include putting a fence in, developing drinking water in a new location, putting supplemental feed at different locations, changing the times feed is put out, putting in artificial shade so that animals would move to that location, using identification means such as ear tags, radio frequency identification, tattooing, marking, branding, and biometrics. There are a host of frightening strategies that have been used to scare animals from intruding prohibited area; these include installing frightening devices such as explosive materials, acoustics and bioacoustics gadgets, and so on. Moreover, they all work under certain conditions; some of them work even better when they are used synergistically. Sooner or later, these animals become accustomed to most of the frightening techniques put in place to prevent them from going beyond their boundaries or intruding the prohibited area. Virtual fencing (VF) and global positioning system (GPS) are the recent technology developed to handle the challenges that come with animal grazing behavior. Recent advances in GPS and VF technology have allowed the development of free-range and lightweight GPS collar tools suitable for monitoring animal behavioral changes.

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Research Article

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